Characterisation and Evaluation of Anti-Larval Properties of Aromatic Plants Against Aedes aegypti

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K A Paari
Jincy A George
Jibu George Babu

Abstract

Piper nigrum, Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum verum, Syzygium aromaticum are the most commonly used spices for its flavour, aroma etc. Methanolic extracts of the four plant samples were tested against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae which later develops as the vector for dengue virus that affects immunologically compromised individuals. The efficiency of the plant extracts were studied with respect to the third and the fourth instar larvae stages of Aedes aegypti mosquito. The larvicidal activity of the four plant extracts were conducted at 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations. Syzygium aromaticum showed the highest larvicidal capability when compared to the other three extracts with 100% mortality at all the concentration with fourth instar Aedes aegypti larvae and 100% mortality at 10% and 15% concentration with third instar Aedes aegypti larvae. Curcuma longa showed the next better activity with 38.4%, 84.6% and 100% of mortality at 5%, 10% and 15% of extract concentration respectively for third instar Aedes aegypti larva. Extracts of Curcuma longa showed 76.9%, 100% and 100% mortality respectively with fourth instar Aedes aegypti larva. Piper nigrum and Cinnamomum verum extracts exhibited higher anti-larval activity in fourth instar stages compared to third instar larva. The GC-MS analysis of partially purified plant extracts concluded the presence of Caryophyllene (RT: 13.830), alpha humulene (RT: 14.300), germacrene D (RT: 14620), p-cumenol (RT: 10.921) Oxime benzaldehyde (RT: 13.045) that confer larvicidal activity in extracts of Piper nigrum, Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum verum and Syzygium aromaticum respectively. The toxicity of the extracts (1%, 5%, 10% and 15%) tested on Danio rerio did not show any adverse effect. The study also standardised a gel formulation comprising larvicidal compounds (1%) using petroleum ether and their allergic nature was assessed by skin irritability and sensitivity assay. This research can be extended to identify the essentials of the commonly used plant materials as a promising mosquito repellent.

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How to Cite
1.
Paari KA, George J, Babu J. Characterisation and Evaluation of Anti-Larval Properties of Aromatic Plants Against Aedes aegypti. IJPPR [Internet]. 25Aug.2019 [cited 5Jul.2020];11(4):286-94. Available from: http://www.ijppr.com/index.php/IJPPR/article/view/1024
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Research Article